A: Yes.  If you create a standard set of colours for specific groups (text categories eg. RockType) then you can click on the Save Attributes button which will create a saved table with those attributes.  Then if you bring in a new dataset you can click on the Load Attributes to load the attribute scheme into the Attribute Manager, then choose the corresponding column which contains the codes/groups used in the scheme and then click on the Apply Attributes button.  When asked whether to use the existing colours (that have just been loaded) select YES and the new data should be coloured according to your saved colour scheme.